Balance Sheet Accounts Accounting Courses Online Free
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Applying the asset-liability formula a quick assessment is made of equity. If the equity balance is broken up in stockholders funds or capital less retained income a current profit is swiftly established before even looking at income or expense items! An income statement should then be preferably be build from "the bottom up". The profit or loss should then be adjusted (added) to expenses and a revenue figure will be determined. If any variances are identified at this juncture it is an income statement problem not the balance sheet. Balance sheet information is sacrosanct. Financial Statement Basics: The Balance Sheet The Canadian Balance Sheet shows the financial position of an entity which is why this statement is commonly referred to as The Statement of Financial Position." The first key point to note is that the balance sheet is prepared to show the company s position at a specified single point in time (Example as of December 31st 20xx) whereas other financial statements such as the Income Statement are reported to show the company s operational performance for a specified length of time such as "for the year ended December 31st 20xx." In this example the income statement is said to cover an entire year from January 1st - December 31st which is also known as a calendar year-end. Furthermore the balance sheet consists of three important elements to consider.
Non-current assets therefore contains all resources owned by the company that have a useful life of more than one year. These assets are often referred to as Capital Assets which include equipment buildings and land. Notice that all assets mentioned thus far whether current or non-current can be classified as Tangible Assets which contain physical substance. However the balance sheet also presents Intangible Assets which are reported as non-current capital assets as well since they have a useful life of more than one year but do not have any physical substance such as goodwill and patents. The sum of the current and non-current assets will equate to and be reported on the balance sheet as Total Assets of the company. Liabilities: represents the claims against the company s assets that have not been paid at the balance sheet date. Therefore they are obligations to the company s creditors.
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For most of these kinds of items a company will book their value at whatever was paid for it. While items that depreciate like computers are usually de-valued over a period of time that piece of land will likely appreciate over time and the current value may not be reflected on the balance sheet. This can make the company more valuable than it appears (some value investors refer to these as "asset plays"). For financial companies a ton of assumptions are made on the balance sheet. The actual value of a loan is very difficult to calculate due to variable interest rates risk of default risk of early payment etc. Take that reality and multiply it by the millions of loans a large bank has outstanding and you begin to see why investing in banks is such a difficult and risky endeavor. However since the Magic Formula throws out financial stocks we won t discuss that in much detail here. One other thing to be generally aware of is that both assets and liabilities are categorized as either "current" or "long-term".