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These institutions have to continually adapt to the advancing technology as well as support the academics in their quest to enhance the artistic scientific and technological aspects of production and publishing. Relationships must also be strengthened by co-operation between business leaders and academic institutions in order to provide the mutual benefit of improve standards with the ultimate aim of keeping up with both local and international developments. The easiest way to judge the standard of design and printing in a country is through the newspapers magazines and books published. Television also provides a showcase for visual communication through locally produced advertisements. The speed of printing development has made impositions on graphic design and the designers themselves.
Thus computers have become indispensable tools and with the advent of hypertext and the web its functions have been extended as a means of communication. In addition the technology also has been noted with the rise of telecommuting and special crowd sourcing has begun to intervene in work arrangements. This change has increased the need to reflect on time motion and interactivity. Even so the professional practice of design has not been essential changes. While the forms of production have changed and communication channels have been extended the fundamental concepts that allow us to understand human communication remain the same. Job performance and skills The ability to design is not innate but acquired through practice and reflection. Still it remains an option one thing potentially.
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Some publishing houses have graphic design offices which also acquired these systems to ensure the production of books and magazines to a similar quality. Linotype was also used to prepare the design of brochures and advertising materials that cannot be hand drawn. With time Linotype was also used for the preparation of other material by this method including greeting cards posters and advertisements. The design and printing sectors found the computer to be an effective way of improving productivity. In 1988 with the arrival of the first design computer by Apple Macintosh the numbers of workers in the field increased and performance progressed in the pre-printing stages such as film making and separation. However the expense of computers meant that there use was still limited.
Their work initially ranged from greetings cards business cards social stationary letterheads and envelopes then progressed to brochures and folders. The work was mainly limited to newspaper advertising which relied predominantly on the offset printing method. We shouldnt forget the air brush technology that provided designers with the use of graded colours achieving three dimensional effects for some designs although the number of people using this was limited. From 1980-87 design was performed by specialists in Plastic Arts and Architecture as well as the first graduates of the college of arts at Yarmuok University and similar institutions. By the end of the eighties the computer Linotype was used as a publishing tool by newspapers to prepare text for layout and paste it on the required pages next to advertising.