Accounts Receivable Balance Sheet Accounting Unit 5 Part 3 Allowance For Doubtful Accounts
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The Balance Sheet is laid out in a particular fashion that reflects one of the most basic precepts of accounting: Assets = Liabilities + Owners Equity or A=L+C Since we are dealing with an equation one side must ultimately and always equal the other side (think back to high school algebra!) Therefore the total dollar amount is always the same for each side i.e. total assets will always equal the total of liabilities + capital (or equity). Stated differently the left and right sides of a balance sheet are always in balance. Some balance sheets will have assets at the top and liabilities and capital at the bottom...no matter...A will always = L + C. Assets are the things your business owns that have some monetary value.
Current liabilities are those that will be paid within one year these include accounts payable notes payable current maturities of long-term debt and payroll taxes. Long-term debt is that which is paid off over an extended period of time. Owner s equity also called net assets is the right of ownership the owners of the organization have after subtracting liabilities. Some examples of owner s equity include common stock additional paid in capital and retained earnings. Common stock is issued as an investment in the business. For example in corporations stockholders are ultimately the owners they claim all assets after liabilities and preferred stock claims are satisfied. Additional paid in capital is defined as the leftover amount paid by the investor over the stated value of the shares sold. Finally the retained earnings are the net income that is not be distributed as dividends to owners or an organization.
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The purpose of the balance sheet. The balance sheet s purpose is to provide a detailed listing of the company s assets and liabilities. It is not unlike a personal credit report. If you think about your own financial net worth you probably have a number of assets such as a home a vehicle a stock portfolio cash in a savings account and so forth. You also likely have a list of liabilities or debts such as a mortgage a car loan electric or telephone bills that have not yet been paid etc. This concept is directly analogous to a company and the balance sheet lists out all of these. Like the income statement an investor needs to be aware of the potential accounting assumptions made for the balance sheet. Obviously some line items are unambiguous. For example the worth of cash in the bank is a pretty straightforward value. However the worth of a 5 year old computer or an undeveloped piece of land are less concrete.