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Around the same time the role of the graphic designer was developed involving the preparation of makettes and then film montage and plates to be ready for printing (prepress); this relied on the professionalism of the film montage technician for the preparation of backgrounds for the pictures and words. Prepress was considered the most important process in the production of the final printed article. This process was carried out at the prepress service centre which was limited to a single institution until 1987. This centre had the capability and technology to perform a range of techniques where an artistic touch was required. In the late sixties design pioneers were not graphic designers but had learnt the technologies of collage and calligraphy. They were able to imitate designs from abroad and in some instances reproduced them.
Another important element in relation to professional practice was the increasing use of visual form as communication element. This item appeared mostly in the designs produced by the Dada and De Stijl. The symbol of modern typography is the sans serif font or serif inspired by industrial types of the late nineteenth century. Highlights include Edward Johnston author of the font for the London Underground and Eric Gill. Design Schools Jan Tschichold embodied the principles of modern typography in his 1928 book New Typography. He later repudiated the philosophy presented in this book calling it fascist but remained very influential. Herbert Bayer who dirigó from 1925-1928 the typography and advertising workshop at the Bauhaus created the conditions for a new profession: the graphic designer.
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He had a massive influence on a new generation of graphic designers contributing to the emergence of publications such as Emigre magazine. Another notable designer of the late twentieth century is Milton Glaser who designed the unmistakable I Love NY campaign (1973) and a famous Bob Dylan poster (1968). Glaser took elements of the popular culture of the sixties and seventies. The advances of the early twentieth century were strongly inspired by technological advances in photography and printing. In the last decade of the century technology played a similar role but this time it was computers. At first it was a step back. Zuzana Licko began using computers to compositions soon when computer memory was measured in kilobytes and typefaces were created by dots.