Personal Balance Sheet
For most of these kinds of items a company will book their value at whatever was paid for it. While items that depreciate like computers are usually de-valued over a period of time that piece of land will likely appreciate over time and the current value may not be reflected on the balance sheet. This can make the company more valuable than it appears (some value investors refer to these as "asset plays"). For financial companies a ton of assumptions are made on the balance sheet. The actual value of a loan is very difficult to calculate due to variable interest rates risk of default risk of early payment etc. Take that reality and multiply it by the millions of loans a large bank has outstanding and you begin to see why investing in banks is such a difficult and risky endeavor. However since the Magic Formula throws out financial stocks we won t discuss that in much detail here. One other thing to be generally aware of is that both assets and liabilities are categorized as either "current" or "long-term".
A third way is that you can sell off assets at a gradual pace to fund your budgetary needs as you age. A reverse mortgage is a good example of this. Assets and Liabilities You need to know what an asset is and what a liability is. You also need to know that there are different kinds of assets and different kinds of liabilities. An asset is an item of value that you own. It has a market value that is the amount that you can sell it for. The value is what the item would sell for if you had to sell it in the short term which may be days or months depending on the asset. When valuing your assets you must consider this and be honest about exactly how much your asset would sell for in the short term. The total value is written down as the asset on your balance sheet.
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Non-current assets therefore contains all resources owned by the company that have a useful life of more than one year. These assets are often referred to as Capital Assets which include equipment buildings and land. Notice that all assets mentioned thus far whether current or non-current can be classified as Tangible Assets which contain physical substance. However the balance sheet also presents Intangible Assets which are reported as non-current capital assets as well since they have a useful life of more than one year but do not have any physical substance such as goodwill and patents. The sum of the current and non-current assets will equate to and be reported on the balance sheet as Total Assets of the company. Liabilities: represents the claims against the company s assets that have not been paid at the balance sheet date. Therefore they are obligations to the company s creditors.
When financial statements are put together the balance sheet will most commonly be the first page in the review. Within the year end statement you will also need to have the cash flow income and note statements. Once all of this is prepared you can then begin completing the balance sheet. The category you will need to work with first when completing balance sheet accounting are the assets. First you will list the current assets which will include prepaid expenses inventory cash investments of short term and receivables due. Then you will need to list the investments which will be any investments that are contracted for longer than one year. The next subtitle will be fixed assets which include equipment and property. If you have any other assets that do not fit into the previous categories you can create a subtitle for all other assets. You will then need to total all of these figures and combine them into a total. Once you list your assets you will then to create a category called liabilities. Within your current liabilities you will need to list interest due within the year income taxes and accounts payable. After this you will need to display your long term liabilities. This will be anything you are paying out longer than one year and then again total it all up.